Thursday, January 1, 2009

GI News Success Stories

Welcome to GI News Success Stories.

Over the years, many GI News readers have told us how making the change to a healthy low GI way of eating has turned their lives and health around.

Here are their inspiring stories about weight loss and managing blood glucose levels all in one place in order of publication on our new blogsite: GI News Success Stories. We’ll add new stories each month as we run them in GI News.

If you have a GI Success Story you would like to share with other GI News readers, simply click in the box below.

Good reading, good eating and good health.

success story

GI News Editor: Philippa Sandall
Web Design and Management: Scott Dickinson, PhD

Monday, December 1, 2008

‘Eating low GI has helped me maintain a reasonable blood glucose level.’ – Peter
‘I am a health professional and worked shifts until July of this year when I turned 50. Over the past 18 months I was diagnosed as being diabetic and my controlled hypertension was becoming increasingly uncontrolled. Being horizontally displaced (around the abdomen) made future health prospects look bleak. I had yo-yoed on different diets such as the Atkins Diet where I lost weight but felt ill and irritable. (How can less than 40 g of carbs be good for you when your brain requires more to function adequately?) I tried other carb-cutting diets but felt continuously hungry and tended to snack. A low GI diet has helped me maintain a reasonable blood glucose level. HbA1c was 7.9 and in the past six months has been 6.8. Another benefit is better sleep – I don’t have to get up 5–7 times a night to pee!

I am still fighting the BMI thing but have realised that what I put on over 20 years won’t come off overnight so I am aiming for 20 months to reach an acceptable weight. I now read labels and am eating more legumes then red meat which I restrict to about once a week. So a low GI diet has improved my health prospects and has motivated me to carry on this scientific evidence based pathway. Thanks low GI.’

Saturday, November 1, 2008

‘The GI can be a great friend and tool to anyone that battles weight and carb cravings.’ – Stephanie
‘I always worked out with weights, and occasional cardio. After my father died, my family broke apart. With all the stress and court drama, I turned to high carb and convenience and comfort foods. I gained 30 pounds. The good news is that I did not keep that weight on more than a year. After being checked for anxiety, I had one high random glucose reading. A few weeks later, my fasting blood glucose was normal, but my A1c was 6.9. Since Dad had diabetes, and his Dad had diabetes, I knew I had to get my “health” back. I started eating a low GI diet and alternated between low carb and moderate carb eating. However I gave up foods like bread, potatoes, white rice, and high glycemic pizza. I lost 40 pounds in a 4-month period. Eating low GI helped my blood pressure return to its previous normal readings and kept my A1c between 5.6 to 5.9. I also got my fitness back and my energy back. Watching my carbs, and aiming for lower and healthier GI carbs has been thus far a lifesaver, and a turnaround for my health! And I have maintained my weight loss, and even lost a few more pounds!


By choosing the right foods that will not elevate blood sugar on a continual exhausting basis the GI can be a great friend and tool to anyone who battles weight and carb cravings. It was instrumental in me getting my life back. Thanks to all who have made this science available -- I truly believe it is a blessing.’

Postscript: Prior to publication, Stephanie reports that her A1c is now 5.5.

‘I would recommend this action plan to anyone with a desire to lose weight, eat plenty of food and feel fantastic.’ – Lorraine
‘Over three months ago I looked in the mirror and didn’t like what I saw and decided to do something about it. After some research on line I decided to give The Low GI Diet: 12-Week Action Plan a go and to my delight I have lost 12 kilos in the 12 weeks. My husband did it as well and lost 9 kilos. We didn’t do the exercises only walking every day for 35 minutes. The menus in the book were simple to prepare and a delight for the taste buds. We have decided to stick to the low GI way of eating and get into exercise to tone up. I have serious back problems and the weight loss has helped to control the pain.’

Wednesday, October 1, 2008

‘I’m having fewer hypos, I am on low doses of insulin and I feel much better.’ – Sarah
‘About six months ago I was diagnosed with gestational diabetes, which I managed with insulin. I read lots of handouts about how to manage diabetes with diet, but the focus was very much on reducing sugar in my diet and little about low GI foods. As a result, I continued eating breads with high GI, lots of potatoes and so on and my BGLs were all over the place. Six weeks after having my baby I found out that the diabetes was actually late-onset type 1! It was recommended that I try a low GI diet; I did lots of reading, including The New Glucose Revolution (The Low GI Handbook in Australia) and incorporated their recommendations into my diet. I have found that my BGLs are much more stable, I’m having fewer hypos, I am on low doses of insulin and I feel much better. My partner is also on the low GI diet and he feels more energetic, particularly in the mornings when he used to feel lethargic and unmotivated.’

Monday, September 1, 2008

‘In six months I lost over 25 kg. It has been a very interesting and enjoyable journey ... and I bore my friends with the details! Some think I am obsessive (possibly true).’ – Robert


My diet management, fitness improvement and weight loss program was based on the recommendations in The Low GI Diet: 12-Week Action Plan (Prof Jennie Brand-Miller, Kaye Foster-Powell & Dr Joanna McMillan Price, Hachette Livre Australia).
Goals set on 29 December 2007
  1. To lose 20 kg by 6 November 2008 (next birthday – age 57), and
  2. To run a 400 m (competitively) at the Sydney International Athletics Centre during November 2008.
Diet program: What has changed with my diet? Based on The Low GI Diet, I eat breakfast daily (did not beforehand); I have increased consumption of tea (black, no sugar), vegetables, fruit and seafood (e.g. tuna and sardines); and reduced my intake of bread, some high fat dairy products, coffee, honey (which went into the coffee – 6–10 cups per day prior to 29 December 2007), potatoes (gone completely from the diet) and saturated fats. I still eat red and white meats. Wine consumption is part of my lifestyle – I am not desperate enough to stop drinking wine.

Exercise program: I have used The Low GI Diet as a guide and my program consisted of a 60 minute brisk walk plus resistance exercises, or 60 minutes of Concept 2 Rowing Machine routines, plus resistance exercises 6 days per week (mornings). The resistance exercise component now takes around 10 minutes. In week 16, I changed my routine to a shorter 45 minute walk (more hills), plus 16 minutes of a Concept 2 routine, plus resistance exercises; or 60 minutes of a Concept 2 routine plus resistance exercises. Still exercising for a total of 6 sessions per week (mornings), and around 1.25 hours per session. Every Saturday morning after the walk, I perform a 2000 metre time trial on the Concept 2 – my test of my fitness level. I have also taken up (March 2008) single sculling after a 25 year absence (try to go sculling on Sunday mornings – around 8 km). I used to row competitively for Sydney University in the mid 1970s to the early 1980s – my body weight then was around 85kg to 90kg at height 188cm. During the week of 7–13 June 2008, I commenced some light jogging (will lead to running assuming the legs i.e. knees etc are OK).

Challenge: Sustaining a reasonable level of exercise (e.g. 5–6 times per week) and maintaining a body weight at around 95–100 kg (my height is 188 cm).

Graph of Robert's results - click for full view


‘I’m having fewer hypos, I am on low doses of insulin and I feel much better.’ – Sarah

‘About six months ago I was diagnosed with gestational diabetes, which I managed with insulin. I read lots of handouts about how to manage diabetes with diet, but the focus was very much on reducing sugar in my diet and little about low GI foods. As a result, I continued eating breads with high GI, lots of potatoes and so on and my BSLs were all over the place. Six weeks after having my baby I found out that the diabetes was actually late-onset type 1! It was recommended that I try a low GI diet; I did lots of reading, including The New Glucose Revolution and incorporated their recommendations into my diet. I have found that my BSLs are much more stable, I’m having fewer hypos, I am on low doses of insulin and I feel much better. My partner is also on the low GI diet and he feels more energetic, particularly in the mornings when he used to feel lethargic and unmotivated.’


Friday, August 1, 2008

‘For anyone starting their journey into low GI eating, embrace it, the health benefits are enormous.’ – Robin
I discovered a low GI way of life in March 2006 when my weight was 125 kg (275 lbs). By August of that year my weight had dropped to 94 kg (207 lbs) and I was well on my way to a healthier life. I now weigh 85 kg (187 lbs) which is approximately 5 kg (11 lbs) over my ideal but I’ve kept it stable for all this time. I now work out at a gym for between 1 and 2 hours a day and have completed two marathons on the indoor rowing machine taking 3 hours 20 minutes to complete.

I’m about to challenge low GI eating again as it appears that I am a coeliac (diagnosis to be confirmed) which will cut out many of the healthy carbohydrates that I currently enjoy. Luckily I enjoy legumes and have no problem mashing cannellini beans, adding a bit of lemon juice and thyme and replacing pasta.

For anyone starting their journey into low GI eating, embrace it. The health benefits are enormous, the weight will fall off and you’ll never feel deprived or hungry.


Update: ‘My diagnosis has come back as positive for coeliac disease. Initially I was concerned at the high GI nature of the foods I was eating and finding that hunger pangs were setting in quickly. Thanks to the team at GI Success I obtained a copy of Low GI Gluten Free Living – fantastic. The Pistachio Apple Quinoa Porridge has become a staple in the mornings now. I saw a dietitian as we are required to when initially diagnosed and she pronounced my diet as excellent and that I'm more than getting the 30 g of fibre a day through the porridge, fruit, vegetables, legumes, seeds and nuts.’

‘I couldn’t believe how easy it has been to lose 19 kg.’ – Sue
After spending most of my life overweight and trying every weight loss program there is, I finally found low GI. What a revelation; the program of eating was simple. I enjoyed finding out the GI values of foods and couldn’t believe how easy it has been to lose 19 kg (42 lbs), feel terrific, not be hungry at all and have far more energy than before. I recommend a low GI diet to everyone. My thanks to all you experts for discovering this information for all of us.


Reversing pre-diabetes
GI News ran Karen’s story in January 2008, here’s her good news update.
‘Before beginning the low GI diet a year ago (May 2007), my BGLs were 7.0 mmol/L after the OGTT. After my latest HbA1c test and OGTT, this was non significant at 4.5 mmol/L. This is fantastic and the low GI diet and support of the team have helped significantly to reverse the pre-diabetes for me. Low GI has become my way of life now and I never feel like I am dieting.’ – Karen

Tuesday, July 1, 2008

‘I have just started my sister on eating low GI food, hopefully she’ll have as much success as myself.’ – Vicki
‘I am a 50 year old female who had VERY unhealthy eating habits. I had spinal fusion in my neck in 2003, as a result my thyroid went haywire! Then in 2005 I had to quit my fast-paced job of 17 years because of four more herniated disks in my back. I weighed 130 lb. in 2003, as of July 2007 I weighed in at 192 lb. I had awful heartburn day and night, food cravings 24 hours a day, no energy, and just felt awful and bloated the whole time. I came across a story on GI and weight loss in a copy of Reader’s Digest at my doctor’s, and I went straight to the bookstore.


In the first six months I lost 49 lb, have energy to exercise AT LEAST every other day, the cravings are gone, the bloating and heartburn are gone, my back is not in constant pain because of the weight loss, and my thyroid has stabilized. I still take synthroid, but the dose does not increase every four months. My skin and hair are much healthier too. Best of all I am now able to take full time care of my 87 year old aunt with Alzheimer’s, who can no longer live alone! The six months of eating low GI foods has made me feel 30 again. I do not even call it a diet, it’s eating good, healthy food for my body. Going to restaurants is not difficult either if you know what foods to eat, and what to stay away from.’

‘I am over 73 years old and have not felt this good in years.’ – Robert
‘On my last visit to the VA in July, 2007, they informed me that I was pre-diabetic and issued me a glucose meter to monitor my blood sugar. My wife had heard about The New Glucose Revolution and purchased the book for me. The attached detailed chart is a progress report that shows when I implemented the low GI eating habits. I use the glucose meter every other morning. Most interesting, to me, is how small the glucose levers became when I added a 5 day exercise program. Note the notes on the chart, i.e. trouser size and weight. The detailed record was requested by my VA health care provider.

Click on graph for full sized view

‘Thanks to all those researchers for discovering the information about the GI for us.’ –Sue
‘After spending most of my life overweight and trying every weight loss program there is, I finally found low GI. What a revelation. The program of eating was simple, I enjoyed finding out the GI values of foods and couldn’t believe how easy it has been to lose 19 kg, feel terrific, not hungry at all and have far more energy than before.’

Sunday, June 1, 2008

‘Just wanted to say I was glad to see that there is support for the low GI diet in youth with type 1 diabetes.’ – G.
‘Last summer (2007) my daughter had a sports physical 3 weeks before turning 15 and we discovered she had type 1 diabetes. Her A1c was 12.7. We read all we could and I asked the nutritionist about GI affecting her sugar (blood glucose) and was told it’s a myth. We were told the insulin to carb ratio was all that mattered. Well in the first month my daughter and I discovered that high GI foods wreacked havoc on her blood glucose. Her diet was more balanced before they got a hold of us. They were just telling us she had to have this many carbs at a meal. Whenever I asked about the amount being too high or that it was difficult to create a balanced diet with that many carbs in a meal, I was told that it’s only for a while until we determine how much insulin she needs. So we read and guessed and made our own adjustments and though she already had a balanced diet we tweaked it more; taking out almost all white flour and using whole wheat instead and other substitutions. Two months later her A1c was down to 6.3 and 3 months later it was down to 5.4. This was achieved without low sugar. We only had one episode on Christmas morning and that was due to homemade cinnamon rolls, insulin over compensating, and guitar hero!


I am tired of the fact that we try not to have her sugar go above 120–130 (6.7–7.2 mmol/L) two hours after a meal and are told that we don't need to worry about it. But the low GI foods achieve this without much difficulty. Not to say that there aren't special occasions when she eats a high GI food but she tries to throw in a real low GI food with it. Anyway just wanted to thank you for doing the research to support saying that low GI foods can have a positive impact on type 1's blood glucose.’

(UPDATE: Just before posting June GI News we heard the great news that G's daughter's A1c was 5.0.)

– This Success Story was sent to Dr Tonja Nansel of the US National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. It was Tonja's and her team's research on the low GI benefits for young people with type 1 diabetes that we covered in May 2008 GI News.

‘Fifty and fit.’ – Lance
‘Love your newsletter! Been a subscriber for two years. Four years ago I went from 205 lb (93 kg) to 150 lb (68 kg), and this morning I weighted in at 151 lb (68.5 kg): holding steady. Your website and newsletter has been a great help in education and allowing me to diversify my diet. While my story continues to have a happy ending, thanks to an understanding of the GI, my story is not that different to many others … Over the years my weight crept up, and by age 47 I was 205 lb. I had no formal understanding of diet and its effect on health and weight gain. Other than in my early twenties I quit smoking, stopped drinking alcohol, and have only eaten animal protein from fish and seafood. With these positive lifestyle changes I still put on the weight.

Without any awareness that the GI existed, I followed Dr Bernstein’s “medically supervised weight loss” program (a low glycemic diet), and lost 55 lb (25 kg) in 4 months. Once I started losing the weight I really wanted to know why, and why without the hunger. This led me to the understanding of the GI. Needless to say the weight loss changed me for life. At 48 (in 2004) I started on a physical fitness program: weight training and running. In the fall of 2005 I ran my first marathon (42.2 km/ 26 miles) on the original track in Athens Greece. Then on January 27th this year I ran in the Khon Kaen International Marathon in Thailand and qualified, in my age category, for the Boston marathon with a time of 3:30:14.

Over the last four years, I have had some ups and down along the way; gaining and losing a little weight. But the more I understand the GI of foods, the easer the weight management gets. When I see people struggling with their weight/health, I feel so fortunate to have the knowledge of how to easily manage my weight. It is nice to see resource websites and newsletters like GI News that continues get the message out about the benefits of a low glycemic diet.’


‘Most of the time and only because of glucose revolution I stay in the 104–120 fasting and 130–140 range after eating.’ – Gretchen
‘I was recently diagnosed with type 2 diabetes (5 months ago) and wasn’t surprised, I come from a very strong family history of diabetes (insulin dependent) on both father’s and mother’s sides. I chose not to go on medication but to use the GI instead along with 45–60 minutes of exercise everyday. I have had very tight control of my glucose most of the time …will go weeks and can count on one hand the number of occasions that it’s gone above 150 (8.3 mmol/L). Most of the time and only because of glucose revolution I stay in the 104–120 (5.8–6.7 mmol/L) fasting and 130–140 (7.2–7.8 mmol/L) range after eating. I have learned so much from your newsletters and the New Glucose Revolution books and have lost about 20 lb (9 kg) – and all painlessly by eating GI way.’

Thursday, May 1, 2008

‘I am going for it and will achieve the 82 kg goal.’ – Greg
I am 64 year old RAAF veteran, ex aviation then mine fire fighter and mine rescue officer with a total of 38 years in the profession. I suffer with PTSD, RLS, sleep apnoea, and my blood pressure, weight (102.5 kg / 226 lbs), and glucose levels were was rising every visit to the doctor. On the last visit to the sleep clinician he asked how my weight loss was going? ‘Yes’ was my reply meaning not good. He waved his finger at me and asked what my lowest weight was as an adult. 82 kg (180 lbs) was it. Then the stern instruction: ‘In 12 months you WILL be at that weight, you WILL exercise for one hour a day and make up the hour later if you don’t.’ So, since then, after getting a health care plan from my GP with exercising, walk one day, bike ride the next ,and eating low GI foods and smaller quantities of other foods as recommended by my dietitian, Julie Gilbert, I lost 5.1 kg (11 lbs) in the first fortnight (2 weeks). Looking forward to what happens this fortnight. WOW. The great thing about the method given to me by my dietitian is that she has laid out the servings sizes and quantities for each group of foods then it is my choice to how I fit them into my energy input scheme for the day. A great thing about it is that so far it has only been a couple of days that I have really craved food. Using a diversion tactic, I overcame the urge. So I am going for it and will achieve the 82 kg goal. By the way, in my spare time I make harps:’
– GI Group: Congrats, Greg! But don't go overboard, slowly does it. The normal fall in metabolic rate that accompanies weight loss makes further weight loss harder (Dr Amanda calls it the Starvation Reaction). To avoid this pitfall, you might like to have one week in which you choose not to lose weight, just to maintain the weight you have lost.


‘The power of one is just amazing.’ – Patricia
‘I have been diet controlled for eight years now – still have my oats, barley flakes and oat, barley and wheat bran, plus whey protein powder, for breakfast, along with a glass of low GI fruit juice but apart from that stick to foods with GI of not more than 50. I have a constant weight of 115 lbs (52 kg), am a blood donor, walk around 20 km (12 miles) per week and successfully competed in Masters’ Games in walking events. I eat kangaroo in preference to beef, low cholesterol and very low fat. Eat lots of veggies even a lower GI spud I have found, plenty of green leafy including Chinese greens, steamed or fresh in salad, couple of pieces of fruit a day. Heart is fine as is BP: 115/60. And I am no spring chicken. I also read labels and lobby to get sugar removed from things like chopped tomatoes – have had some success there – now after the tomato paste manufacturers! The power of one is just amazing!’

Tuesday, April 1, 2008

‘Eating low GI is saving my life’ – Bev
The threat of type 2 diabetes loomed large in my life. I had undiagnosed gestational diabetes with my first child and was able to control it through healthy food choices during my second pregnancy. Although significantly overweight, I was always interested in nutrition. Then last year I realised I’d better take the weight off if I didn’t want to develop diabetes and end up significantly disabled by it – just like my mother. Low GI made that change possible. I was never hungry because my blood sugar no longer spiked and I was eating high fibre foods. My chronic headaches disappeared and I had much more energy. After the first 30 pounds (13.6 kg) I began jogging and now, at almost 60 pounds (27 kg) lost, I would never want to eat or live any other way.


Low GI foods help me maintain a healthy blood glucose and give me all the energy I need to raise a family, work full time and still fit in a run three times per week. Even my kids like low GI. Last night I was greeted with squeals of joy that we were having salmon with pasta and a crispy salad for dinner. And you should see all the blueberries I have in my freezer that I put up when they were in season. I plan to be around a long time now and healthy enough to chase after my future grandchildren when that day comes.

‘We both love being outdoors and staying active.’ – Kathy
I was diagnosed as being pre-diabetic and quickly adopted the GI way of eating. Everything is under control with this healthy eating program and increased exercise. I lost the unwanted and unhealthy weight, and my energy levels soared. You are never too old to get into shape. I am on no medication whatsoever. For starters I go to the gym two or three times a week. I always take a couple of classes per visit, and mix up the classes each week.


I am 60 years old and have been married for 40 years. I get my most fun exercise during all four seasons with my best friend and husband, Bill. In the winter we cross country ski and snowshoe. In the spring, summer and fall we kayak, bike, swim, hike, camp, fish, walk, etc. We also own three horses and maintain 10 acres of pasture. We both love being outdoors and staying active. Even on days when I feel sluggish, our hyper active English Springer Spaniel dog still needs to be walked. Getting our dog out to walk daily is a great chance to reflect on life.

Saturday, March 1, 2008

‘Success breeds success! I love the mental freedom of not having cravings as the best thing of all.’ – Diane
‘I had never been on a diet or lost a kilo in my life. So, having reached the age of 53, weighing 102 kg and being pre-diabetic, I decided to adopt the low GI diet. I read many success stories, but never did I think I would be as successful as these people. I couldn’t imagine myself as losing weight and being lighter, I couldn’t really remember weighing less.


Well, only 12 weeks later, I weigh less than 90 kilos! I stare at the scales every morning in amazement. It has become an incentive to continue, as success breeds success. People have noticed, and are very kind with their comments, but strangely enough, I don’t notice much change, except in photographs. I never imagined I would be able to cut down my chocolate habit to next to nothing, but it has been so easy. I’d say to people, jump in, the first few days might be hard, but just go and have some lovely steak, prawns or fish and try and then try and tell yourself this diet is awful!

I upped the intensity of my exercise as well, and it is difficult fitting it all in, but hey, going out for a walk instead of watching telly or sitting at the computer ain’t so bad, is it. I also like to think that I’ll escape some of the complications of diabetes that my family suffered.’

‘I lost 15 lb over 6 months and continue to maintain this weight loss.’ – Jini
‘I wanted to safely lose the weight I had gained following 5 years of adjuvant therapy (tamoxifen) for breast cancer. I had read about the glycemic index (I am a research scientist) and decided that I would try the low GI diet. I cut out all refined and processed food from my diet and started to replace high GI foods with low GI substitutes. It is not very easy but I compiled lists of foods with a lot of help from your website. I followed the low GI diet combined with working out at the gym 3 times a week. I lost 15 lb over a period of 6 months to return to my original weight and BMI of 21.5 and continue to maintain this weight loss.

As I and my family enjoy desserts I now create/develop low GI versions of cookies/muffins using whole wheat flour, ground almonds, fruit and small amounts of honey/maple syrup. I have also successfully encouraged several family members (some who are diabetic) to switch or to be more aware of the GI of the foods they eat.’

Friday, February 1, 2008

‘This is such the right way to go! I am a completely different person now.’ – Adriana
I have tried everything in the past – you mention it and I have done it from high protein regimens to eating pineapple + tuna every day or simply starving. I did not understand what was happening in my body and what was making me eat so much of the wrong types of food. The low glycemic concept came to me around two years ago and my life changed since. I forgot what is like to be in the yo-yo cycle, what is like to crave for food, being moody or having regular headaches when I am hungry. I now have excellent control of what I eat and I am a healthy weight. There are two reasons for this: I am not longer addicted to the high GI carbohydrates and I do not have to rely on my will to make this one work. This is the best way to start a healthy life style, achieve a healthy weight, keep it forever and prevent many chronic diseases proven to be related to overweight and obesity. Eating mostly low GI and doing regular exercise was the way to go for me. Give yourself a chance to experience this amazing way of living!


‘I love it and can see myself eating this way for years to come.’ – Jade
I was a 16-year-old rather heavy athlete. I couldn’t get the right times and I was a rather unhealthy eater. One day my parents brought home a recipe book from a diabetic friend who was on the low GI diet and had accidentally ordered two copies. They paid no real attention to it using it less frequently than other books that we had. One day I was looking in the cupboard where it was kept and read the first few pages about losing weight the healthy way (not too fast) and the benefits of eating low GI with sport. I read everything I could and then got a copy of the other book that explained the whole concept. And that was the start of a new me. I stuck to it from day one and I have amazing results from it. I leaned up, lost a lot of excess weight and did really well in my cross-country season this year (2007) just from losing the extra weight. My parents don’t try to eat lower GI as I do, but they do help me in buying me whatever I need and have said repeatedly how proud they are of me, sticking to something and putting my whole heart into it. And not quitting. At times I didn’t eat what they would eat or I would take food from home instead of eating the higher GI foods that would be served at parties and functions. I run or work out and look forward to having my favourite snack that is higher GI, and it motivates me even more to work harder. And I love it and can see myself eating this way for years to come. I am 18 now and try to get all my friends to stop being as ignorant as I was about their food choices because they are such easy choices to change.